Independent Psychiatric Medical Evaluations — IME’s

Dr. Williams is a recognized expert in the assessment and treatment of persons with workplace injuries. He has authored peer reviewed chapters and papers on the objective assessment and treatment of injured workers.

Independent Medical Evaluations (IME’s) and Psychiatric treatment consultations are two separate types of evaluation, with distinct purposes. IME’s are for the purpose of litigation, and no doctor-patient relationship is established. IME’s are to be impartial, with the single goal of determining the diagnosis and causation, i.e. whether a psychiatric condition is causally related to an industrial injury, whether it caused an aggravation of a pre-existing condition, or whether it is unrelated. IME’s are typically requested by attorneys or insurance companies involved in adjudicating claims for benefits.  He employs objective psychological testing, including the MMPI-2 or MMPI-2-RF to provide a psychometrically objective “3rd leg” of assessment, in combination with the other two legs which are a meticulous record review and a 90 minute clinical interview.  Dr. Williams has formal training in the administration and interpretation of the MMPI-2 and MMPI-2-RF, which are the most widely used measures of personality functioning in the world.  He has presented his work at the MMPI-2 Annual Symposium.  His chapter in Psychiatric Care of the Medical Patient published in 2015 by Oxford University Press provides a detailed discussion of both psychological test instruments, with case examples.  The MMPI-2 and MMPI-2-RF have particular value because their validity scales provide insight into the examinee’s cooperation with the test taking process. In other words, they make it possible to distinguish between response patterns that are straightforward, those that involve exaggeration or falsification, and those that may minimize the severity of real problems. Dr. Williams’ chapter in the Oxford University Press reference text book provides case examples in addition to an in depth discussion of the MMPI-2 and MMPI-2-RF.

Psychiatric treatment consultations are for the purpose of diagnosing psychiatric conditions and recommending appropriate treatment. They are not for the purpose of litigation.  Consultations are typically requested by other health care providers and a doctor patient relationship may be established.  The MMPI-2 or MMPI-2-RF are used in all psychiatric treatment consultations to refine diagnostic specificity and to provide an objective measure of severity.  The results are reviewed with the patient to develop treatment goals and to measure progress in treatment through serial re-assessments.


  • Williams C.D. “Disability and occupational assessment: objective diagnosis and quantitative impairment rating. Harv Rev Psychiatry 2010; 18:336-352.
  • Williams C D. Chapter 86. “Objective Psychiatric Assessment and Management of Chronic Disability Syndromes” in Psychiatric Care of the Medical Patient 3rd Ed. Fogel BF and Greenberg D, Eds. 2015 (New York) Oxford University Press pp. 1643-1677.
  • Williams C.D. and Kidder A. Disability and Mental Health. In: Howard S. Friedman (Editor in Chief), Encyclopedia of Mental Health, 2nd edition, Vol 2, Waltham, MA: Academic Press 2016, pp. 51-60.
  • Williams C.D. and Kidder A. “A comparison of MMPI-2 and MMPI-2-RF data from 2007-2015: A population of mainly Worker’s Compensation IME’s and treatment consultations in a private psychiatry practice.”  50th annual MMPI-2/A/RF Symposium, Minneapolis, June 2015.
  • Williams C.D. and Kidder A. “The MMPI-2 and MMPI-2-RF are valuable aids to psychiatric diagnosis, treatment planning and the assessment of treatment progress.” 51st annual MMPI-2-/A/RF Symposium, Fort Lauderdale, May 2016.
  • Williams C.D. and Kidder A. “An update: the MMPI-2 and the MMPI-2-RF have different protocol validity in seriously disturbed worker’s compensation patients in a private psychiatric practice.” 51st annual MMPI-2/A/RF Symposium, Fort Lauderdale, May 2016.